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Brief History of Flamenco 佛蘭明高舞蹈的歷史簡介
Flamenco was developed by gypsies in Andalucia over several centuries; by the late 17th century, it was recognized as a musical expression of the poverty, oppression and personal grief by these people. The fact that flamenco uses non-Western chord structures and progressions points to its likely oriental origins as the gypsies came from India to Spain through a series of migrations through central Europe and North Africa. During that process, not only had they brought with them their own language (now known as “romano” or “cale”) and an oriental-based music, they had also incorporated elements of the musical cultures of other inhabitants of the regions they had passed through, especially from the Moors and the Jews. As gypsies were mostly social outcasts, mistrusted and despised by most and subject to special laws and arbitrary from treatment, they retained an insular way of life and their music remained quite distinct from mainstream Spanish folk music. The cantes (songs) in flamenco reflected the harsh livelihoods and general misery of the gypsies. In this and their dependence on improvisation, flamenco music resembles the blues of African Americans under comparable circumstances.
吉普賽人於這期間從印度通過中歐和北非一直遷徒至西班牙, 就可能見証了這點。在這過程中, 他們不僅引入了自己的方言(現稱為romano 或cale)
及東方音樂文化, 更融匯了他們途經其他地區居民的音樂文化元素,尤以摩爾及猶太文俗為甚。由於吉普賽人被眾人視為已被社會拋棄的人群, 不但受人懷疑和藐視,
亦要受制於特別或武斷的法律, 所以他們過著孤立的生活, 其音樂亦一直異於西班牙主流的民間音樂。佛蘭明高中的歌曲正好反映了吉普賽人的不幸和苛刻的生活。該份情懷及佛蘭明高依重即興演奏的特色,
In its earliest form, flamenco was performed in homes for immediate family and friends, solely as a personal form of expression. Its most primitive forms (deblas, martinets, siguiriyas and solea) dealt only with unhappiness, issues such as death, lost love or hardships. Over time, as flamenco evolved to incorporate elements of Spanish music in lighter forms (alegrias, bulerias, fandangos), it also developed alternative moods to express happiness. The introduction of the guitar probably accelerated this as did the development of the dance in the last century.
佛蘭明高在發展初期, 只為吉普賽人在家為致親及朋友表演, 作為個人抒發感情的方式。其最原始的形式 (如deblas, martinets, siguiriyas 及 solea) 均只以憂傷為題, 如死亡、失去的愛或生活的艱苦等事項。時而久之, 佛蘭明高逐步融入西班牙的音樂元素, 演變出較輕快的形式 (如alegrias, bulerias, fandangos), 並形成其他音樂情調以抒發快樂的情懷。結他的引入以至上世紀的舞蹈發展相信加速了這個演變過程。
及至上世紀末, 佛蘭明高的歌曲和舞蹈 (el cante y el baile) 終於踏入商業範疇。最初, 一些佛蘭明高表演者受富人所顧,
到宴會或juergas演出。這造就了專業佛蘭明高藝術家的露起, 並牽起cafes cantantes 時代, 令佛蘭明高終於可在公共場合受人欣賞。與此同時,
佛蘭明高的音樂特性, 亦就個別歌曲潮流的發展而逐漸改變, 一些較原始的音樂形式漸漸被遺忘以至原全失傳, 而其他的 (如fandangos)
註：Flamenco 亦被譯為佛朗明哥, 佛拉明哥, 佛拉門哥, 弗拉門戈等。
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